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Apa itu Report Text?

Report text seringkali dikenal juga sebagai informational report. Report, dalam Concise Oxford Dictionary 10th Edition, didefinisikan sebagai:

  1. An account given of a matter after investigation or consideration.
  2. A piece of information about an event or situation.

Dapat disimpulkan, dalam konteks bahasa, report text atau teks laporan adalah teks yang berfungsi untuk memberikan informasi tentang suatu peristiwa atau situasi, setelah diadakannya penyelidikan dan melalui berbagai pertimbangan.

Dengan demikian, sebenarnya report text mirip dengan descriptive text namun terdapat perbedaan yang cukup jelas.

Purpose of Report text

Setiap report text yang disusun haruslah memiliki maksud atau tujuan penulisan. Beberapa ahli menyebutkan tujuan dari report text adalah untuk memberikan informasi mengenai suatu hal. Sebuah report text umumnya mendeskripsikan keseluruhan kategori suatu topik secara umum, seperti alam, negara, budaya, transportasi, dan lain-lain.

Selain itu tujuan sebuah report text adalah untuk menyampaikan suatu informasi dari hasil penelitian yang melalui analisis yang sistematis.

Generic Structure of Report text

Report text tersusun atas struktur sebagai berikut:

  • General classification

Menyatakan klasifikasi dari aspek umum suatu hal seperti hewan, tempat publik, tanaman, dan lain-lain yang selanjutnya akan didiskusikan secara umum.

  • Description

Memberitahukan sebuah fenomena yang sedang didiskusikan dalam hal bagian-bagiannya, kualitasnya, serta kebiasan atau perilakunya.

Sebagian orang juga menyatakan generic structure sebuah report text adalah:

  1. General information (informasi umum)
  2. Bundles of specific information (kumpulan informasi khusus)

Language Feature of Report text

Ciri-ciri sebuah report text adalah:

  • Penggunaan kata benda umum (general noun), misalnya ‘hunting dogs’ (bukan kata benda tertentu, seperti ‘our dog’;
  • Penggunaan kata kerja terkait (relating verbs) untuk menggambarkan fitur, misalnya ‘Molecules are tiny particles’;
  • Beberapa penggunaan kata kerja tindakan (action verb) saat menggambarkan perilaku, misalnya ‘chicken cannot fly’;
  • Penggunaan present tense untuk mengindikasikan keadaan umum, misalnya ‘tropical cyclones always begin over the sea’;
  • Penggunaan istilah teknis, misalnya ‘Isobars are lines drawn on a weather map‘;
  • Penggunaan paragraf dengan kalimat topik untuk mengatur kumpulan informasi dan penamaan topik yang diulang sebagai fokus awal sebuah klausa.
  • Penggunaan beberapa passive voice
  • Bahasa penggambarannya biasanya lebih bersifat faktual dan tidak terlalu imajinatif misalnya, warna, bentuk, ukuran, bagian tubuh, kebiasaan, perilaku, fungsi, kegunaan.

Report Text Examples

  • School

School is a building for children who want to study. School is an institution for formal education and designed for the teaching of students or pupils under the supervision from the educators or teachers. At school, students can learn anything, for example, mathematics, English, science, social, physics, biology, and art. Students go to school in the morning and start their lessons at 07.30 o’clock. They have ninety minutes for every subject that they studied. At school, students can interact with their friend, make relationship and students are also educated to become a better person and expected to have a good personality. A student may not come late or truant the school. If students do those things it can be assumed as an offense and students can be punished.

There are so many rules at school that cannot be broken and must be followed by all students. School usually have many classrooms. Besides that, there are library, mosque, and canteen for lunch, teacher’s office, field for sports and etc. School has to be a comfort and pleasure place for students because students will spend most of their time at school.

  • Tornado

Tornadoes are known as one of the most damaging disasters. What is the description of tornadoes? A tornado is a very powerful column of winds which spirals around a center of low atmospheric pressure. A tornado will look like a large black funnel which hangs down from a storm cloud.

The name “tornado” derives from the Latin “tonare”. It means “to thunder.” While the Spanish developed the word into “tornear” which means “to turn or twist”. This is why a tornado is sometimes called twister or cyclone.

The winds inside a twister can spin around at speeds up to 500 miles an hour, but it usually travels at roughly 300 miles an hour. This speed twisting makes a tornado the most dangerous storm.

The average tornado has a diameter of about 200 to 300 yards. The smaller tornadoes are known as satellite tornadoes. These small offspring, about 50 yards across, can be very fierce and do lots of damage.

The forming of a tornado can be very quick. Sometimes it can form in a minute or less. A tornado can travel across the ground at high speeds, then it can suddenly vanish. Most tornadoes last less than twenty minutes and travel less than 15 miles. However, the super storms sometimes travel over 100 miles before they are exhausted.

  • Mobilephone

A mobile phone (also known as a wireless phone, or cellular telephone) is a very small portable radio telephone.

The mobile phone can be used to communicate over long distances without wires. It works by communicating with a nearby base station (also called a “cell site”) which connects it to the main phone network. As the mobile phone moves around, if the mobile phone gets too far away from the cell it is connected to, that cell sends a message to another cell to tell the new cell to take over the call. This is called a “hand off,” and the call continues with the new cell the phone is connected to. The hand-off is done so well and carefully that the user will usually never even know that the call was transferred to another cell.

As mobile phones became more popular, they began to cost less money, and more people could afford them. Monthly plans became available for rates as low as US$30 or US$40 a month. Cell phones have become so cheap to own that they have mostly replaced pay phones and phone booths except for urban areas with many people.

  • Bicycle

A bicycle, is called a bike or cycle, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist.

Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe and as of 2003, more than 1 billion have been produced worldwide, twice as many as the number of automobiles that have been produced. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for use as children’s toys, general fitness, military and police applications, courier services, and bicycle racing.

  • Banking system

A bank is an institution with a twofold function. First, it keeps people’s money safe and readily available. In this way it functions as a savings bank.. Secondly, it lends money to people who need it. It is also, therefore, a money lender.

Anyone can go to any bank and deposit money, that is, ask the bank to look after it. He becomes a customer of the bank. When, he deposits money, we say he opens a bank account.There are two types of bank accounts. The first is a current account. When a customer deposits money on a current account, he can make withdrawals by means of a cheque. No interest is paid on this type account.

The other type of account is a time deposit. On this type of account the customer can deposits his money for a specified period of time He can withdraw the money only at the maturity date. Interest is paid for this type of account.

A banks receives deposits from customers, as well as lend money to its customers. A person who wants to borrow money has to give the bank something as collateral for instance, a certificate showing ownership of property. When a customer has a bank loan, the bank charges him interest on the money he has borrowed. The bank does not always give the borrower actual’ money. It may credit his account with the amount borrowed, exactly as if he had deposited that amount at the bank.

  • Air pollution

Every day both industrial and domestic chimneys emit vast amounts of dirt and harmful gases. The exhaust fumes from thousands of car engines add to this huge volume of filth, Sulphur dioxide, produced mainly by the burning of coal and oil, combines with the moisture of the air to form sulphuric acid. This eats away stone, brick and even metal. Doctors reason that if it can do this, it must damage the lungs of people who breathe it, especially over a period of many years.

Usually the effects of air pollution are not instantly noticeable. Occasionally, though,, there have been catastrophic “smogs”. (The word smog is a combination of smoke and fog). One of these occurred in the town of Donora, Pennsylvania, in the U.S.A. The valley in which the town lies traps the smoke and fumes from the steelworks and chemical plants that fill it.

One day, in October 1948, unusual weather conditions prevented the smog from lifting by the afternoon, as it normally did. Instead, it hung over the town for three days. By the end of the third day, nearly 6000 people were ill. More than 60 percent of those aged 65 and over were seriously ill. 20 people died. At last a heavy rain shower cleared the smog.

One of the chief causes of air pollution in many cities is the internal combustion engine. Cars, lorries, and buses give out the gas called carbon monoxide, which in high concentrations can kill a person in a confined space. Cars also throw into the air fine particles of rubber and asphalt from their tires and the road, and particles of asbestos from their brake-linings. These can cause damage to the lungs when breathed in.

Another source of pollution is nuclear power station which produce a great amount of poisonous radio-active waste. This waste must be sealed up and buried beneath the ground or seabed so carefully that there is no danger of leakage. Some scientists are very worried that we are not being careful enough with nuclear waste. It may not all be buried safely. Also, they fear there may be a serious accident at a nuclear power station, releasing deadly radiation into the air.

  • Oil

Oil, like coal and natural gas, is a fossil. Fuel fossils are made from the remains of dead plants and animals/ It is thought that oil comes from tiny plants and animals whose bodies fell in their millions to the seabed when they died. There they were covered by sand and mud, which later hardened into rocks. In the course of millions of years, the plant and animal materials underwent chemical changes and eventually turned into oil.

Oil Deposits lie hidden deep beneath the surface of earth. They have to be searched for. Unless the oil actually comes to the surface, it is impossible to be certain that any is present.

The during demand for oil products keeps the oil companies busy exploring new oil fields, and drilling new wells. Exploration teams are sent to distant regions to search for oil. If the exploration shows good results, the company decides to drill a well. Thus the exploration phase ends, and the production phase begins.

At the beginning of the production phase, gas pressure from below causes the crude oil to gush to the surface with great force. After some time, however, the gas pressure is less, and a pumping station must be built to bring up the oil. Wells continue to produce oil for several years, until productions become so tow that must be abandoned.

Crude oil has to be transported to a refinery to be made into the many products that are useful to man,, such as patrol, kerosene, diesel oil, lubricants, asphalt. Further .processing gives aviation fuel, greases, fertilizers, insecticides, man-made fibers and many other things.

The oil industry has a very complex and widespread distribution system. Ocean tankers, pipelines, rail tankers, and road tankers are used to bring the oil products to sea-ports, inland depths, can and drum factories, and to tent of thousands of petrol stations in cities and along motorways.

More than/any other, the oil industry influences the lives of men and women everywhere. From the largest to the simplest home, whose need may only be kerosene for its lamps and stoves.